March 05, 2021

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3 factors that affect the State of Health of lithium-ion batteries

lithium-ion batteries

3 factors that affect the State of Health of lithium-ion batteries

The lithium-ion batteries were first created in the year 1985 and it took more 6 years of research before making them commercial. ZEBRA and Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries were in use before the Li-ion commercialisation. At current the lithium-ion batteries and lead-acid batteries are in much use. But lithium-ion is much preferred than the lead-acid battery. 

lithium-ion batteries

What are the batteries?

It is basically a storage device or medium that is made up of two electrodes in an electrolyte. In simple words, they can be called as energy storage systems. The electrolyte provides a medium to exchange the ions which produce the electricity. There are different types of batteries such as Lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, ultracapacitors etc, but here we will discuss lithium-ion battery at current as it is mostly used in electric vehicles.

Lithium-ion is something that is in high demand all over the world today, as it is mostly used in electric vehicles. In India, the lithium-ion batteries market is expected to grow significantly in the next five years. The annual lithium-ion battery market in India to increase from 2.9 GWh in 2018 to reach 132 GWh in 2030 at a CAGR of 37.5%.

3 factors that affect the State of Health of lithium-ion batteries

There are many factors that affect the health and lifespan of li-ion batteries. The battery’s performance can be identified by its available energy and the lost energy or battery capacity.

The battery is said to be degraded when the active materials are transformed into the inactive phases as a result of parasitic chemical reactions. Here are some of the key factors that can affect the overall State of Health (SOH) of the batteries. Knowing the SOH of the battery is very important to predict how many times the battery can be charged and discharged before its life is terminated.

1. Temperature

The lifespan or the performance of the Li-ion batteries mainly depends on the charging and discharging. In the process of charging and discharging the temperature is an important factor. Overheating of the batteries can lead to thermal runaway where temperature can reach as high as 500-degree celsius. Even a single cell thermal runaway will lead to a chain reaction with other cells causing fire and loss of life or property.

To improve the lifespan of the li-ion battery and to have a safety, all the li-ion batteries have a battery management system (BMS) which regulates and controls the batteries such as charging, discharging, and cell equalization and monitoring and control overall temperature system.

There is also another way to protect the battery during charging or discharging is the thermal management system.

This system is used to maintain the temperature of the entire battery system. It includes both passive and active cooling systems and one or more heating sources to warm the batteries in colder climates. The BMS can create complexity and power demands from the batteries.

2. Charge/Discharge Rate

Many of the manufacturers suggest CC-CV that is constant current, constant voltage. When charging your electric vehicle the constant current is very important. If you use this profile, the system provides a constant current till your battery reaches the maximum charging voltage and drops the current to prevent overcharging of cells.

The goal should be to maintain a normal working temperature and avoid lithium plating of the electrodes. When necessary you are suggested to use ultra-fast chargers only.

 3.Charge/Discharge depth

When a li-ion battery cannot be charged above 80% of its original capacity then it has reached the end of its useful life. The depth of discharge (DOD) can affect the total number of charge cycles that a battery can provide during its useful life.

DOD is an alternate to the SOC through which the battery’s health can be identified. It complements each other, as one increases and other decreases. To maintain the life of the battery, the manufacturers have added software controls into their BMS to reduce the issue by not letting the battery to be drained and charged beyond specific set points.

Hence, if you have or you are planning to buy an electric vehicle consider these factors and choose your EV wisely. 

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About The Author

Mastered in Journalism and I am a dedicated writer for since 2 years. I am an EV enthusiast. I love to write about electric vehicles, technology, startups, people, fashion and trends. Through my writings and shared knowledge, I aim to reduce the pollution levels from the world, especially from India.

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