February 06, 2023

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EVs battery types & its components, advantages & disadvantages

EVs battery types & its components, advantages & Disadvantages

EVs battery types & its components, advantages & disadvantages

Batteries are the major energy source for an electric vehicle. Ever since the first battery was invented and till today there are battery inventions are taking place. The invention of different kinds of batteries is done to get the desired performance of electric vehicles at an affordable cost.

There are some of the prominent battery types such as lead-acid, Ni-Cd, Ni-Zn, Zn/air, Ni-MH, Na/S, Li-polymer and Li-ion batteries etc. These different batteries have their own pros and cons. Here in this article, we will discuss the common battery types and their basic components, advantages and disadvantages.

EVs battery types & its components, advantages & Disadvantages

Battery Type  Components Advantage Disadvantage 
  • Negative active material: Spongy lead
  • Positive active material: Lead oxide
  • Electrolyte: diluted sulfuric acid
  • Available in production
  • volume
  • Comparatively low in cost
  • Mature technology as used for over fifty years
  • Cannot discharge more than 20% of its capacity
  • Has a limited life cycle if operated on a deep rate of SOC
NiMH (Nickel-

Metal Hydride

  • Electrolyte: alkaline solution
  • Positive electrode: nickel hydroxide
  • Negative electrode: an alloy of nickel, titanium, vanadium and other metals
  • Double energy density compared to lead-acid
  • Harmless to the environment
  • Recyclable
  • Safely operates at high voltage
  • Can store volumetric power and energy
  • Cycle life is longer
  • Resistant to over-charge & discharge
  • Operating temperature range is long
  • A reduced lifetime of around 200-300 cycles if discharged rapidly on high load currents
  • Reduced usable power because of the memory effect

(Lithium-Ion )

  • Positive electrode: oxidised cobalt material
  • Electrolyte: Lithium salt solution in an organic solvent
  • High energy density, twice of NiMH
  • Good performance at
  • high temperature
  • Recyclable
  • Low memory effect
  • High Specific power
  • High specific energy
  • Long battery life, around 1000 cycles
  • High Cost
  • Recharging still takes quite a long time, though better than most batteries

( Nickel-Zinc)

  • Positive electrode: nickel oxyhydroxide
  • Negative electrode: Zinc
  •  High energy density
  • High power density
  • Uses low-cost material
  • Capable of deep cycle
  • Friendly to environment
  • Usable in a wide temperature range from -10 degree to 50 degree celsius
  • The fast growth of dendrite, preventing use in vehicles


  • Positive electrode: nickel hydroxide
  • Negative electrode: cadmium
  • Long lifetime
  • Can discharge fully without
  • being damaged
  • Recyclable
  • Cadmium can cause pollution in case of not being properly disposed of
  • Costly for vehicular application

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About The Author

Mastered in Journalism and I am a dedicated writer for ElectricVehicles.in since 2018. I am an EV enthusiast. I love to write about electric vehicles, technology, startups, people, fashion, and trends. Through my writings, I love to contribute to my team's efforts to reduce the pollution levels in the world, especially from India.

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