Today electric vehicles are definitely not the new topic, it is the most popular and we can say a trendy word. As electric vehicles are becoming the boon in the country, people are much interested to know more about EVs whether they buy it one for them or not but they are looking for some wonderful specifications for the best performance of the vehicle such as speed, range, motor capacity or power, etc, so we have got some of the advantages and disadvantages of diff types of EVs motors.
Advantages & disadvantages of diff types of EVs motors
Before we go into the motor manufacturers, let us see what are the types of motors used in EVs and which motors are widely used in EVs.
There are many types of motors but in that, there are 5 different types of motors used widely and currently most of the EVs manufacturers use BLDC motors, Induction, SRM, Permanent magnet motors.
Different types of electric vehicles motors
- Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor(PMSM),
- Brushless DC Motor(BLDCM),
- AC Induction Motor(ACIM),
- Permanent Magnet Switched Reluctance Motor(PMSRM)
- Interior Permanent Magnet Motor(IPMM),
Related Article: Types of Motors used in EVs and why BLDC Motors are widely used
Types of Electric Motors
The electric motors are available in 3 main segments like AC motor, DC motor, and special purpose motors.
DC & AC Motors
DC motors may run from 96 to 192 volts and AC motor, three-phase AC motor running at 240 volts AC with a 300-volt battery pack. A typical motor will be in the 20,000 watts to the 30,000-watt range.
Diff types of EVs motors
Brushed DC Motor
- It gives the maximum torque at low speed.
- Bulky structure
- Low efficiency
- Heat generation at brushes
It is used by the Fiat Panda Elettra.
Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor (BLDC)
- No rooter copper less
- More efficiency than the induction motors
- It is lighter
- Better heat dissipation
- More reliable
- Short constant power range
- When speed increases torque decreases
This type of motor is used in the Toyota Prius (2005).
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)
- can be used without using gear systems in a different speed range
- More efficient
- Best suitable for in-wheel application
- Gives high torque even at least speeds
- During the in-wheel operation at high speed it losses the high amount of iron
Toyota Prius, Nissan Leaf, Soul EV
Induction Motor (IM)
- It is the most mature commutator less motor drive system
- By employing the field operation control it can be operated like separately excited DC motor
Tesla Model S, Tesla Model X, Toyota RAV4, GM EV1
Switched Reluctance Motor(SRM)Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM)
- It is simple
- Robust construction
- High speed
- Low cost
- Constant long power range
- Higher power density
- Makes so much of noise
- Low efficiency
- Complex and design control
- Problem creating in manufacturing and controllability
- Low power
PM assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor
- More power than SynRms
- Free from demagnetizing problems seen in IPM
Axial Flux Ironless Permanent Magnet Motor
- Iron is not used in the outer rotor
- No stator core
- More power density
- Minimize copper loss
- Good efficiency
- Variable speed machines
- Rotor is capable of being filtered to the lateral side of the wheel
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